Introduction Of A Research Paper About Teenage Pregnancy

Teen pregnancy and resulting births pose many societal challenges, and as a result require the collective efforts of many to provide solutions. Teen pregnancy has been considered a "social ill" for centuries in the United States and has always challenged moral and ethical sensibilities. The economic costs of teens giving birth are significant, and there are many compelling reasons to reduce the teen pregnancy. Research shows that reducing the number of births to teens and increasing the age at which a women gives birth yields significant cost savings for the public sector. Efforts to reduce teen pregnancy are mainly focused on prevention and sex education is a large part of the effort. Twenty-first century sex education programs focus on two main strategies, they are: abstinence only education and abstinence plus education. Abstinence only teaches that abstaining from sexual activity is the only truly effective way to prevent unintended pregnancy. Abstinence plus education focuses on delaying the initiation of sexual activity and recommends the use of contraception if a teen is sexually active. The success of abstinence only education has been exaggerated according to many sociologists and researchers. Scientific research indicates that abstinence plus education is actually much more effective in preventing teen pregnancy. Solving the problem of teen pregnancy has largely been relegating to treating the symptoms of the problem and employing prevention strategies aimed at young women. Sociologists believe that reducing the rate of teen pregnancy will require developing more comprehensive and holistic solutions in the future. Researchers, teachers, parents and community leaders are recommending and developing programs that focus on the role of boys and young men in the teen pregnancy puzzle. Research indicates that involving boys and young men in "male only" sex education may help to significantly reduce the rate of teen pregnancy over the coming years. The effectiveness of approaching the teen pregnancy problem from holistic or system-wide view will be documented in future research.

Keywords Abstinence Only; Abstinence Plus; Comprehensive Sexuality Education; Non-Marital Births; Public Sector Costs; Punitive; Teen Childbearing

Teen Pregnancy

Overview

Teen pregnancy is largely regarded as a societal problem that is most effectively dealt with through prevention strategies. However, some researchers argue that the discrepancies between the realities of teen pregnancy and the strategies for its prevention hinder the issue from being adequately addressed on a holistic level (Kohili & Nyberg, 1995). Cultural and political attitudes toward sexuality may also hinder the formulation of a concerted effort toward confronting the problem of teen pregnancy. Instead, policy makers, educators, researchers, and parents have generally focused on preventing teen pregnancy itself rather than on addressing the societal influences that may encourage teen pregnancy. Variables such as the age at which a teen first engages in sexual intercourse and the use or non-use of contraception can all predict the likelihood of a teen becoming pregnant. However, both of these variables are in turn influenced by a number of societal indicators such as peer pressure, pro-social values, parent-child communication, and self esteem (Kohili & Nyberg, 1995).

Young, unwed women have been giving birth for centuries. The "objective conditions" around teen births have not changed significantly over time. However, changes in the language associated with the issue illustrate significant shifts in the subjective perception of "teen pregnancy" throughout history (Luker, 1997).

In the Colonial era, women who gave birth outside of wedlock were called "fallen women" and considered to be sinners. The children born out of wedlock were "bastards" or "illegitimate." The economic impact of these children and their mothers were a pressing social concern: without a husband's support, unwed mothers and their children might need to become wards of the state. During the Progressive era of the early 1900s a more compassionate attitude toward unwed women and their children evolved. Unplanned pregnancies were no longer considered a moral or economic problem, but rather "a societal problem, an index of what was wrong with society" (Luker, 1997, p. 20). A stigma has long been associated with giving birth out of wedlock, and the fear and shame that went along with bearing illegitimate children kept the number of unmarried births low until relatively recent decades. Today, many sociologists admit that the stigma is largely gone, and that its disappearance has had at least some relation to the increase in teen sexual activity and pregnancy. (Kohili & Nyberg, 1995)

The Economic Cost of Teen Pregnancy

Though teen pregnancy rates declined by 36 percent from 1990–2002 and by 33 percent among girls aged fifteen to nineteen from 1991–2004; as of 2012 the teen pregnancy rate in the United States is still the highest of all the industrialized nations. Children born to teens are very likely to grow up in single parent households, and poverty in households that are headed by single women is between four and five times more severe than in households headed by married couples (Haskins & Sawhill, 2007). According the Haskins & Sawhill, "reversing the trend toward single-parent families would have an immediate effect in reducing poverty rates. But perhaps more important, it would also have a long-term effect on children's growth and development" (p. 4).

The age of a woman when she has her first child has a significant impact on the public sector costs associated with the birth. The younger the mother is, the higher the net cost of the birth (Hoffman, 2006). A 1996 report Kids Having Kids and a later 2006 report By the Numbers: The Public Costs of Teen Childbearing both attempted to calculated the relative costs associated with births to teens. The author of the later report described his methodology, which was similar to that of the former report:

The cost estimates provided in this report are based on a very conservative research approach that only includes costs that can be confidently attributed to teen childbearing itself rather than to other traits or disadvantages that often accompany teen childbearing (such as poverty) (Hoffman, 2006, p. 3).

By the Numbers calculated the costs in two areas: costs associated with the mother and her partner and costs associated with the children of teen mothers. Public sector costs associated with teen mothers and partners are calculated primarily as loss of tax revenue due to lower lifetime earnings. Public sector costs associated with children of teens include publicly provided healthcare, foster care, and child welfare services. The more indirect costs incurred by children who are born to teens often show up as incarceration costs and lost tax revenue due to the children's lower earnings (Hoffman, 2006).

Sociologist's goals in reviewing these net costs associated with teen births is to "make apparent the economic value of preventing early pregnancy" (Hoffman, 2006, p. 3) Delaying the age of first birth saves significant money in the public sector because teens who have children frequently rely on social services for support and, over their lifetimes, pay lower taxes (Hoffman, 2006) The primary goal is to measure the costs that could be averted if today's mothers delay their first birth until their early 20s (Hoffman, 2006).

Teen pregnancy declined by about one-third between 1991 and 2009, consequently reducing the number of children in poverty; by 2013 the rate of teen pregnancy was still declining. Trends in teen sexual activity and contraceptive use suggest that a combination of existing policies and changes in the larger culture have produced reductions since the early 1990s (Haskins & Sawhill, 2007).

Between 2010 and 2011 there was an additional drop of 8 percent for babies born to mothers between the ages of fifteen and nineteen. Birth rates fell by 11 percent for mothers between the ages of fifteen and seventeen.

Sociologists are eager to identify programs and policies that successfully reduce the number of teen pregnancies. A great many programs focus on preventing teen pregnancy; however, this essay will not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of all of them. Instead, it will discuss research surrounding sex education, namely abstinence only education and abstinence plus education. The discussion surrounding sex education will focus not only on current research findings, but also on the veracity of the research that has produced different and often conflicting results. Finally, this essay will discuss programs that focus on the role of boys...

“TEENAGE PREGNANCY: ITS EFFECT ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL YOUTH IN MARAMAG, BUKIDNON “

Click these to guide you by chapter:Chapter I; Chapter 11; Chapter III; Chapter IV; Chapter V

Teenage Pregnancy – Title Page

Teenage Pregnancy – About the Author

Introduction;Statement of the Problem; Null Hypothesis; Significance of the Study; Conceptual Framework; Independent and Dependent Variables; Scope and Delimitation

Chapter I

Introduction;

Over the past few decades, teenage pregnancy has become a public concern which has generated a great deal of attention in the locality. Increasing awareness of the social and economic consequences of teenage pregnancy has led to a consensus opinion among policy makers  and the public that teenage pregnancy and child bearing is a significant social problem. It has been linked to an array of other social issues, such as welfare dependency, child health and well-being, out of wedlock births, fatherhood responsibility, child abuse and neglect, school drop-out and workforce development. (Torivillas, The Philippine Star, 2013).

There was a strong agreement that teenage pregnancy rate is still on the increase and and every increased there has an additional consequences of abortions and fetus losses and yet reducing the number of births by this age group remains an important goal, Scott (1981).

The frequency of teenage pregnancy among the youth is alarming and has become more or less a fact of life in many nations of the world including Philippines. This remains both culturally deleterious and personally destructive. Teenage pregnancy has lots of effects on Educational Development of teenagers who are victims of this phenomenon. The Philippine government and other religious institutions  are studying every angle to look for ways to reduce untimely pregnancy among teenager. These are many factors which have been recognized by researchers and authors as being responsible for teenage pregnancy. It has been noted and well documented that today’s teenagers face more sexual temptation than previous generations. They seem to be more aware of sex and susceptible to the dangers of illicit sex. Today’s society is more bombarded with sexually oriented materials in the environment. The teenager are more vulnerable to sexual temptations. Health and Home, Philippines, Pregnant at 16, p.12-13 &22).

According to Eruesgbefe, (2005). “Today’s teenagers have become more sexually active and promiscuous compared to their age mates of some thirty, forty or fifty years ago in the Nigerian situation”. He also asserted that, “The gradual departures from the traditions, customs and religious doctrine of the different ethnic groups on the premise of civilization have been largely responsible for this. Community and families must work hand in hand to shield their teenagers against these phenomena. Increases in both health and social problems are products of uncontrollable multiple sex partners among teenagers. Mainly because the youth cannot control their emotional feelings, they rush into untimely sex, in the belief that the act will be undetected.

According to Albano (2001). In the Philippines, usually in a family, this category are not taught family life education by their parents and schools because of the sensitivity of the issue, this is contrary to the wide assumption that family life education is on. In practice, however, not much of sex education is taught in every Filipino family. Existing government family planning programs have been directed principally to married couples.

Maramag is still a growing community, cases of teenage pregnancy usually become a big issue to the neighbors and to the whole community. The family of the victim is in trauma discovering that their teenager was some months on her way already. Almost everybody is blaming the pregnant teenager of the consequences of her misdeeds. They focused their judgment to the victim but they did not bother to ask why and what were behind of indulging sex at teens and got pregnant not at the right time. The Philippine government through some of its agencies like Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)  and Department of Education (DepEd), introduced some strategies to minimize the increasing cases of pregnancy as observed after a decade in the Philippines. Sex education is being incorporated to the subject matters in school. RH bill could be a big help to let the teenagers know how to act about sex. Filipino families and communities is properly informed about their responsibilities to their youngsters with regards to sex.  While teenagers wherever they are must be reached to educate and be well informed how to counter early pregnancy.

Religious sectors are also showing concerns about the teenagers by intensifying the activities at the church and detour  their interest while they are still young and not yet prepare to face the consequences brought about early sex. The churches now are also don’t want to left behind on nurturing the youths by instilling  to their minds  that early sex out of wed luck has consequences and the consequences hurt more than waiting. (Health and Home pp.13,2003).

The researcher of this paper hope that after the study, she can impart some important strategies  and information she gained to the community, to the teachers, school administrators, parents and to the teenagers on how to minimize teenage pregnancy to students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

Click below to some parts of chapter 1 of this thesis:

Chapter I – Statement of the Problem

Chapter I – Null Hypothesis

Chapter I – Significance of the Study

Chapter I – Conceptual Framework;

Chapter – Independent and Dependent Variables; 

Chapter – Scope and Delimitation

Chapter – Definition of Terms

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Making;

Steps on making the “Background”

10 Minutes Exercise Twice per Week Relieves Body Pains, Back aches and Colds

Carrots with Lemon is a Perfect Combination for Anti Oxidant

Learn English Online

 

Like this:

LikeLoading...

This entry was posted in chapter 1, effect on education, pagbubuntis ng dalaga, statement, teenage pregnancy, Thesis Making and tagged chapter 3, chapter 5, Chapter II, chapter IV, conceptual, limitation, pregnancy, scope, significance, teenage, variables. Bookmark the permalink.
Categories: 1

0 Replies to “Introduction Of A Research Paper About Teenage Pregnancy”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *