LITERARY ANALYSIS: HIROSHIMA BY JOHN HERSEY
JAPANESE CULTURE AND LANGUAGE
Japanese cultural factors play a strong part in both the plot and character development of this book. The Japanese attitude toward the dead is very significant in this disaster which kills 100,000. In the third chapter, for example, we see how the Red Cross Hospital staff carefully preserves ashes of each deceased even while there are thousands of living wounded who still require treatment. Proper treatment of the dead, both in respect to the deceased person and to their family, is a moral obligation which often supercedes care for the living. Therefore, the staff is careful to label each corpse and to package some of their ashes for relatives to pick up later.
This attitude toward the dead also influences how the living from Hiroshima are labeled after the bombing, as seen in chapter five. The term survivors was rejected in favor a more neutral explosion-affected persons so as not to dishonor those who had died. Since the dead were sacred, in effect the living received less credit for the hardships they had endured to keep themselves alive.
Another important cultural element is how many of the main characters, and much of the city as a whole, reacted to both the hardships they suffered from the bomb as well as the moral question of the bombs use. They expressed the Japanese psyche of being resigned to hardships, articulated as shikataga nai, or oh well, it cant be helped. This comes from the Buddhist belief that emptying oneself of worldly thoughts, both good and bad, leads to understanding and contentment. It is also a product of a strong central government that is often unresponsive to citizens needs, as well as a disbelief that such horrors could have been caused by real human beings. Hersey point out that to Mrs. Nakamura, for example, the bombing thus felt much like a natural disaster that was unavoidable.
Because of the relative formality of the Japanese culture, the characters in the book are usually referred to by their last names. First names are rarely used, and only by mothers to their children or between affectionate spouses or intimate friends. Other elements of language use in the book include Japanese terms such as hibakusha, or explosion-affected persons.
STUDY QUESTIONS - ESSAY TOPICS - BOOK REPORT IDEAS
1. What aspects of the book make it clearly a non-fictional account under the genre of investigative reporting?
2. The book is marked by realism and the experiences and feelings of individuals. Discuss.
3. Discuss the significance of the Aftermath chapter in relation to the whole text.
4. What realities of modern warfare does Herseys account highlight?
5. Wartime Japanese were willing to sacrifice and even die for their Emperor. Discuss and give examples from the book.
6. How did the way plant life was affected by the bomb eerily contrast to the way humans were affected? Describe.
7. How is Hiroshima essentially a tale of survival?
8. Why do you think this book has remained popular for over 50 years after it was first written?
1. Discuss the fear of attack that the citizens of Hiroshima were feeling before the bomb was dropped. Contrast this to the actual power of the atom bomb and discuss whether those fears were warranted.
2. Choose at least two main characters and describe how their priorities, choices, and reactions after the bomb matched those of their everyday lives prior to the bomb, for better or worse.
3. How were the bomb survivors treated in Japanese society? Contrast this to the post-humus treatment of those who died in the blast.
1. The book is based on interviews of six survivors, with no moral conclusions drawn.
2. The survivors stories are allowed to speak for themselves. The book is not a call to action but an objective reporting of the facts. The author is unemotional even in his telling of a horrific incident. He relates the information in a straight forward way.
3. Hersey highlights the idea that war involves more than battle plans and armies. In Hiroshima, thousands of civilians are killed with a single weapon, and an entire city is destroyed. Hersey also brings up the issue of the use of nuclear weapons in war.
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Hiroshima by John Hersey: Free BookNotes Summary
John Hersey (1914–1993) grew up in both China and the United States and graduated from Yale in 1936. One of his first jobs was working as a secretary for prominent author Sinclair Lewis. From 1939 to 1945, he served as a war correspondent for Time magazine; during that time he wrote two popular books about American troops in Asia, Men on Bataan and Into the Valley. Hersey’s third book, A Bell for Adano (1944), a novel about the U.S. army in Italy, won the Pulitzer Prize. After the enormous success of Hiroshima, published in 1946, Hersey continued to write both nonfiction and fiction, although none of his later writings attained the status of his earlier works. He taught at Yale, MIT, and the American Academy in Rome, and became actively involved in politics. He was a vocal opponent of America’s involvement in Vietnam. In 1985 Hersey released a new edition of Hiroshima with a lengthy postscript detailing the lives of its six major figures in the forty years since the bomb.
From 1945 to 1946, Hersey visited Japan on a trip sponsored by Life magazine and the New Yorker, to write about the people of Hiroshima in the aftermath of the atomic bomb. The editors of the New Yorker originally planned to include his account in serial form over a number of issues. After they read the entire manuscript, they decided at the last minute—too late to change the peaceful scene already placed on the cover—to devote an unprecedented entire issue to Hersey’s story.
The issue’s publication on August 31, 1946, caused a near frenzy of activity. It sold out in just a few hours, and the New Yorker was overwhelmed with requests for reprints. The magazine, which normally sold for fifteen cents, was scalped for fifteen to twenty dollars. Other ways of reproducing the text quickly sprang up—the Book-of-the-Month Club distributed free copies, and the text was read in its entirety on national radio. Albert Einstein ordered 1,000 copies of the magazine, but his order could not be filled. The book was quickly translated into many different languages and distributed around the world, though not in Japan, because of American censorship.
Most reviewers hailed Hiroshima as an instant classic, praising Hersey’s calm narrative and vivid characterizations. Some people worried that the book would make Americans too sympathetic to the Japanese, but many—even those who were staunch supporters of the bomb—agreed that Hersey helped to penetrate the cloud of complacency that had developed in America regarding use of the atomic bomb. Before the book, anti-Japanese feeling was still rampant, and stereotypes of the Japanese as fanatical or sadistic people were very much a part of the American psyche. The American public was ignorant in many ways about just how destructive the bomb was; photographs from Hiroshima focused on property damage, and statistics about the loss of life hardly told the entire story. Many prominent military leaders had attributed the heavy loss of life in Hiroshima to faulty construction of homes or ruptured gas mains. Hiroshima put a human face on the numbers and showed Americans why the atomic bomb was so devastating. Furthermore, because Hiroshima detailed the lives of six characters in depth, it showed Americans that ordinary Japanese citizens were not really different from them.
In the years since its publication, Hiroshima has remained an extremely important work. Recently, New York University’s School of Journalism ranked it the number one work of journalism of the twentieth century. The book has its critics, however; there are some who feel that Hersey’s impartiality leaves him no room for moral judgments and that the book does not inspire any kind of real outrage about America’s use of nuclear weapons. Indeed, there is little indication that the book inspired much protest or criticism of Truman and the American government at the time. Many readers believed that the bomb had to be controlled, but they did not dispute its effectiveness in ending the war with Japan. As a result, there is a vocal minority who accuse Hersey of a significant irresponsibility, because he did not express enough moral outrage about the bomb along with the horrific images he relates; nor did he suggest that the bomb was unnecessary for ending the war. Hersey has said that he felt both despair and relief when he heard that the bomb had been dropped. Because he grew up in China, and saw Japanese atrocities while at Guadalcanal and Bataan, it is likely that he was not completely sympathetic to the Japanese cause.