THE PROGRESSION AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF BEHAVIORISM 2 The Progression and Contribu±ons of Behaviorism Behaviorism focuses on the observable and objec±vely measurable behavior of an individual, and considers the factors of his or her environment in learning and behavior. Neuroscience and psychodynamic principles consider behavior to be a symptom of underlying problems and focus on the inner workings of the mind, but behavioral perspec±ves view behaviors as learned responses to s±muli. As psychological science progresses new theories form, and the behavioral approach begins in the early 1900s. American psychologist John B. Watson introduces his theory that behavior is understood through studying and modifying the environment of an individual. Edward C. Tolman follows Watsons lead and expands on it by introducing empirical research methods and his theory of posi±vism to behavioral perspec±ves; his research methods pave the way for B.F. Skinner who believes accomplishing predic±ons of, and control over human and animal behavior is possible through experimental analysis (Goodwin, 2005). Considera±on of the perspec±ves of these three psychologists provides insight into the encompassing nature of behaviorism and allows understanding of its history. John B. Watson (1878-1958): Beginning Behaviorism The father of behaviorism John B. Watson believes for psychology to be a science it must measure the percep±ons and feelings of an individual to provide observable data. While at the University of Chicago his experiments of the sensory organs of rats show sensory s±muli and cogni±ve processes combine during learning (Goodwin, 2005). His perspec±ve denounces the cogni±ve method of introspec±on as reliant on the personal percep±ons of the person engaging in it, and contends this method does not provide observable and measurable data to support scien±²c psychological research. Watson’s s±mulus-response psychology (S-R psychology) studies the s±muli of an individual’s environment, considers the behaviors elicited by them, and notes the punishments or rewards that
Однако вместо этого Сьюзан увидела нечто совершенно иное, от чего кровь застыла в жилах. «СЛЕДОПЫТ» ОТКЛЮЧЕН «Следопыт» отключен. У нее даже перехватило дыхание.